Students that reported stress from homework were more likely to be deprived of sleep. In the MetLife study, high school students reported spending more time completing homework than performing home tasks. However, Kiewra et al. The students slept an average of 6 hours 48 minutes, lower than the recommendations prescribed by various health agencies. A study done at the University of Michigan in concluded that the amount of homework given is increasing.
In a sample taken of students between the ages of 6 and 9 years, it was shown that students spend more than 2 hours a week on homework, as opposed to 44 minutes in Some educators argue that homework is beneficial to students, as it enhances learning, develops the skills taught in class, and lets educators verify that students comprehend their lessons.
Historically, homework was frowned upon in American culture. With few students interested in higher education , and due to the necessity to complete daily chores, homework was discouraged not only by parents, but also by school districts. In , the California legislature passed an act that effectively abolished homework for those who attended kindergarten through the eighth grade.
But, in the s, with increasing pressure on the United States to stay ahead in the Cold War , homework made a resurgence, and children were encouraged to keep up with their Russian counterparts. By the end of the Cold War in the early s, the consensus in American education was overwhelmingly in favor of issuing homework to students of all grade levels.
British students get more homework than many other countries in Europe. The weekly average for the subject is 5 hours. The main distinction for UK homework is the social gap, with middle-class teenagers getting a disproportionate amount of homework compared to Asia and Europe.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Homework disambiguation. H Cooper - Educational leadership , - addison. The Rules of the Game". The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2 November Cooper, Harris; Robinson, Jorgianne C. In some homes, that means doing it right after school; for others, it can mean waiting until after dinner if your child is the type who needs to expend some energy before he dives back into the books. Dolin recommends giving all kids at least 30 minutes to have a snack and unwind, with one caveat: Giving kids a half-hour break between after-school activities and homework is a smart idea, too.
The key is to be consistent about the routine. Take a few weeks before homework gets heavy to try different approaches and see what works best, then stick to it. Everyone deserves a break on Fridays, of course. But pick a regular time during the weekend for homework. Instead, send an e-mail or note to the teacher asking her to please explain the material to your child again. If your child is a fourth-grader or older, have him write the note or talk to the teacher.
The teacher will likely have office hours earmarked for those who need help. Also ask her about specific websites many school textbooks now have practice sites kids can use in conjunction with the material in the book or check out an online tutoring site like growingstars.
Some kids do best with a desk set up in their bedroom so they can work independently; others want to be smack in the middle of the kitchen while you cook dinner. Frequently Jose needs short extensions on in-class assignments. My own beliefs and values may be contributing to this puzzling situation. Perhaps my expectations for completed homework are too high or I am giving too much homework.
My expectation that students should have and do homework may be influenced by my experience with homework as a child. In the last thirty years the controversy over the value of homework has come up again and again. Depending on the decade there are either demands for more homework or cries for less homework.
Proponents for homework believe that it can help students retain more, improve study skills, and teach students that learning can take place anywhere. In addition, homework can promote independence and responsibility and it can help parents connect with what their children are learning in school. Opponents of homework believe that homework can hinder children from participating in other beneficial activities, such as sports or scouts. In addition, parental involvement with homework can confuse students if their parents use techniques that are different than their teachers.
Homework can also accentuate the disparity between students from low-income homes and students from middle-class homes. Students from low-income homes may have more difficulty completing an assignment Cooper, It is also possible that there is a cultural mismatch between what is emphasized at home and what is emphasized at school.
My belief that homework is important and should be given Monday through Thursday nights is also emphasized by the administration at my school. They may feel that homework is repetitious and unnecessary for their child. Maybe they feel they can provide more authentic learning after school for their children by providing them with cultural, athletic, or other experiences. Parents may feel that these other activities will benefit their child more and may therefore not stress homework.
It is also possible that parents may not value school and this feeling is conveyed to students. Outside influences may also affect Jose. Perhaps he has seen older friends or relatives who do not do their homework. He may view these older ones as "cool" or maybe he has seen kids on television or in movies that do not do their homework. Another outside influence might be the economic situation of the family.
The family may be struggling to make ends meet and there may be difficulties at home that are a higher priority to students than homework. These cultural influences are important for me to look at because they could change the way I administer homework or the amount of homework that I give.
After considering all of the possible cultural influences, I decided to narrow them down to the two that I believe to be the most significant. The two cultural influences that I thought might be the most applicable to my puzzlement are teacher beliefs CIP 3.
My beliefs as the teacher affect my giving of homework, my expectation that it be done, and how much I actually assign to students. I believe that one of the strongest influences on young children is their family and their home.
Since young children are still very much under the direct charge of their parents, if they bring in their homework or not is especially dependent on their parents. Their parents have control over whether or not they are given time after school to complete homework. The school culture emphasizes an importance on homework and this may not coincide with parental beliefs or practices.
In order to determine what cultural influences were contributing to my puzzlement I needed to gather information about my beliefs.
I chose to look at these by journaling, a technique recommended in the Cultural Inquiry Process Jacob, In my journaling I needed to consider why this situation was puzzling to me and why I think this situation is happening.
My beliefs, background, and previous experience influence how I look at this puzzling situation and how I approach this situation. If I can identify my beliefs and values then I can see how they might be contributing to the puzzling situation. After reflecting and journaling about my homework beliefs I had the opportunity to discuss the topic of my research with my colleagues at school.
Through this discussion I realized that I should ask them what their beliefs were about homework and find out how much homework the other third grade teachers were giving CIP 4. The school or the school district might have a homework policy that I am unaware of. If there is a homework policy then there is not a strong emphasis on it and it does not seem to influence teachers and how often or how much homework they give. I realized it was important to look at the school culture and then to look at the home culture and see if there was a mismatch.
I sent many notes home, called home and tried to leave messages. I grew up in an environment where receiving and doing homework was part of a daily routine. Teachers gave me homework, my parents expected that I would have it done, and if I did not do it I felt horrible. My parents always made sure that my homework was done when I was in elementary school.
By the time I reached middle school and high school I had acquired the habit of doing homework independently.
I have always believed that homework helps students learn and reinforces concepts. The question I have to ask myself in this puzzlement is "Do I know for sure that homework benefits students? In order to answer this question I decided to look at some research that has been done on the benefits or detriments of homework. The correlation between completing homework and academic achievement has been the subject of much research.
Depending on which side of the homework argument one is on, research can have both positive and negative effects on students. According to Cooper some positive academic effects of homework include retention and understanding of material, improved study skills, improved attitudes toward school. Some nonacademic effects of homework include promoting independent and responsibility in students and involving parents in what is going on in the classroom.
Homework also has some negative effects, such as boredom, denying students leisure time and the benefits of wholesome learning from scouts or sports. Homework can lead to cheating and can emphasize the disparity between the homes of low-income and middle class students. Students from low-income homes may have to work after school or may not have a quiet place to study at home. When looking at 50 studies done on homework and student achievement, Cooper found that homework had little or no effect on student achievement at the elementary level.
After reading some research on the effects of homework on academic achievement I had to seriously consider how my beliefs fit into this. I realized that giving homework benefited me as the teacher. These benefits matched the benefits teachers expressed having in the Homework Attitude and Behaviour Inventory for Teachers Weisenthal et al. Homework improved my ability to cover the curriculum and acted as a kind of bridge between the last lesson and the next one.
Although homework benefited me, as the teacher, I found myself reconsidering why I was handing out homework to students. According to Kralovec and Buell , elementary school students show no significant academic gain from doing homework. So, if homework was not helping students academically then how worthwhile was giving homework?
I found out that the other two third grade teachers, both males, at my school were not giving as much homework as I was. One teacher usually gave only spelling and reading as homework. Every once in a while he would give math homework. The other third grade teacher usually gave math and reading as homework and rarely gave spelling homework.
I, on the other hand, gave math, spelling, and reading as homework. According to Weisenthal et al. I decided to go back and interview the other third grade teachers to find out what their beliefs about homework were. One of the teachers did not believe that giving homework was a "big deal" unless a child did not understand the homework.
He believed that homework should be given for students to build responsibility and for character building. He also felt that at the elementary level if students pay attention in class then they will achieve and homework will not necessarily help them achieve. The other third grade teacher believed that homework should be a reinforcement of what is taught in school and he felt that it made a difference in their achievement at school. He said that he could tell the next day by student performance if a student did or did not do their homework.
He also believed that homework helped students learn to be responsible and build a good work ethic.
Most agree that homework should be purposeful, and that more does not translate to better. “Busy work turns students off from learning,” says Lynn Fontana, chief academic offcer of Sylvan Learning, a national tutoring chain that provides homework help for pre-K12 students.
The final study, a dissertation project, involved teaching a lesson contained in a language arts textbook. The fourth graders who had been assigned homework on this material performed better on the textbook’s unit test, but did not do any better on a standardized test.
Books like The End of Homework, The Homework Myth, and The Case Against Homework and the film Race to Nowhere make the case that homework, by taking away precious family time and putting kids under unneeded pressure, is an ineffective way to help children become better learners and thinkers. “Busy work” does not help students learn Students and parents appear to carry similar critiques of homework, specifically regarding assignments identified as busy work—long sheets of repetitive math problems, word searches, or reading logs seemingly designed to make children dislike books.
Students need to be able to complete the work at home without assistance because some students do not have an English-speaking parents or guardians to help them. In conclusion, research is inconsistent in determining if homework increases student achievement. Does homework improve student achievement? October 8, Since , educators around the world have conducted studies to answer a simple question: Does homework help or hinder a student’s ability to learn? As simple as the question seems to be, the answer is quite complex. So many variables affect student achievement.