Across most discourses communities, writers will:. For example, the way a claim is made in a high school paper would look very different from the way a claim is made in a college composition class. Porter Contrary to some beliefs, this is by no means plagiarism. Writers should also be aware of other ways in which the discourse community shapes their writing.
The following sections elaborate on these functions. The article states that "A fact derived from the Latin factum, see below is something that has really occurred or is actually the case". But this is not how writers think of facts. Writing professionals hold that, "In a rhetorical argument, a fact is a claim that an audience will accept as being true without requiring proof".
The audience can be thought of as a discourse community, and a fact can suddenly change to become an opinion if stated in a different discourse community. This is how writers within discourse communities manage to present new ideas to their communities. Therefore, knowing the intended discourse community is a very important part of writing. Across discourse communities, what is considered factual may fluctuate across each community. You, like most people, would probably classify the statement "the Earth is round" as a "fact.
Within discourse communities, writers build on top of the ideas established by previous writers. But this is simply not the case. Discourse communities introduce new ideas and claims, and from these, writers expand on them. James Porter, a scholar of Rhetoric at Indiana University, uses The Declaration of Independence as an example to illustrate this point.
Porter points out that Jefferson merely pulled the phrase "That all men are created equal" straight from his commonplace book he made as a boy.
Jefferson wrote this great work by weaving together the intertext of his discourse community. As Greene describes in his article, "Argument as Conversation", academic writing can be thought of metaphorically as a conversation between those in the discourse community. Just like in a conversation when you listen to the ideas of the others who are involved and formulate your own opinion on the topic, a writer may be reading a paper done by another writer in the discourse community and from this paper, the scholar may obtain inspiration to expand the claims expressed in the paper or address them from other angles.
Good academic writers know the importance of researching previous work from within the discourse community and using this work to build their own claims.
By taking these ideas and expanding upon them or applying them in a new way, a writer is able to make their novel argument. Intertextuality is the combining of past writings into original, new pieces of text. The term intertextuality was coined in by Julia Kristeva. All texts are necessarily related to prior texts through a network of links, writers often unwittingly make use of what has previously been written and thus some degree of borrowing is inevitable.
This generally occurs within a specific discourse community. Factoring in intertextuality, the goal of academic writing is not simply creating new ideas, but to offer a new perspective and link between already established ideas. This is why gathering background information and having past knowledge is so important in academic writing.
A common metaphor used to describe academic writing is "entering the conversation", a conversation that began long before you got there and will continue long after you leave. A quote from Kenneth Burke encapsulates this metaphor:. When you arrive, others have long preceded you, and they are engaged in a heated discussion, a discussion too heated for them to pause and tell you exactly what it is about.
In fact the discussion had already begun long before any of them got there, so that no one present is qualified to retrace for you all the steps that had gone before. You listen for a while, until you decide that you have caught the tenor of the argument; then you put in your oar. However, the discussion is interminable. The hour grows late, you must depart, with the discussion still vigorously in progress. Intertextuality plays into this because without it there would be no conversations, just hundreds of thousands of writings not connected or able to build on each other.
The listening until you can join the conversation can be seen as doing research. All of the research you read, is built on research instead of self-knowledge. This can be connected to the part of the metaphor where no one in the parlor is qualified to bring you up to speed, just as the papers your researched were researched also. Porter inspirationally explores the essence of intertextuality in one of his articles Intertextuality and the Discourse Community:.
Intertextuality reminds us that "carrying out ritual activities" is also part of the writing process. The power of this statement is the idea that one can turn intertextuality into ones own favor only once one "does not exist" when writing academic text and only once one realizes that there is no universal reader to which the text can be attributed to. The text lives its own life with its own purpose and the author is not the actual creator of the text. The author is simply translating meaning assignment into non-existent code, forming non-existent "I" which is intended for non-existent reader it is rather series of different readers, often with various opinions on the text.
So what is academic writing about? It is an imperfect conventional form of code created by few people whom we do not know and it is surrounded by non-existent concepts. It is inherited from imperfect teachers and is bound to reveal only very small portion of all the possible infinite codes. However, this small portion can be unique. As long as it is, it provides us with new combination of codes and an opportunity to find our own existence in the nothingness which surrounds us, either through the eyes of the machine or through the eyes of our own.
If you want to help students with their homework and written assignments, we at Academia-Research have an opening for an academic freelance writer! We offer a wide range of tasks: Our team of freelancers entails only skilled and knowledgeable experts in more than 50 fields, and we want you to join us! This is an opportunity to launch your writing business or start your career and become a writing guru. Many freelancers are reaping the benefits. Besides, you have the freedom to manage your workload, fit work with your schedule, and earn a great income.
We are here to offer you vetted academic jobs online. As a freelancer with our platform, your duties will include helping students with their assignments. We are looking for a professional in any field to apply the knowledge and writing skill to fulfil the assignment to high levels of standard.
This may be your opportunity to utilize your degree and experience and earn money comfortably, anywhere. With our academic writing jobs, we are on a mission to make education a worthwhile experience.
You probably remember those days in college when you wished there were someone to help you get out from the pile of written tasks. Yet you had to spend sleepless nights reading, writing and editing. To make the situation worse, you had to earn a living and pay loans. Here at Academia-Research, you can pick up freelance academic writing jobs online and produce something meaningful, be a part of the elite freelancer network, and earn a stable income.
Our company is a fast and great way to have the freedom and flexibility every freelancer dreams of. The convenient work conditions where you can manage the workload yourself makes it a great opportunity to work at a comfortable pace. Imagine no daunting tasks and toxic bosses. Only the freelance writing jobs that you want to do.
topboxfrify.tk is a US based online writing company. It comprises of professionals who are always ready to provide reliable services that match clients’ expectations as they pursue excellence in their education. Our company has managed to source professionals and experts from native English speakers including UK, Canada, .
Our unique academic writers are eager to optimize your case studying program. They present their trustworthy assistance on numerous subjects to international students. We give international studying audience a unique opportunity to order academic essay writing services from us, make their leisure time more colorful, and hustle free.
Find freelance academic-writing experts for hire. Access 11 academic-writing freelancers and outsource your project. 11 Best Academic Writing Specialists For Hire In September - Upwork™/5(). Hunting for online writing jobs? Join our team of professional academic writers and editors. Expert freelance writers wanted!
Best Academic Writing Jobs for Real Writers. If you want to help students with their homework and written assignments, we at Academia-Research have an opening for an academic freelance writer! Words is a commodity! Joins us to ghostwrite, edit, proofread or host your own webinars.